Malaria is transmitted by the night-time - dusk to dawn - biting female Anopheles mosquito.
Risk is absent in most of the country; risk exists only in specified areas:
Rural and urban areas of the following areas: Northwest District (sub-districts of Kasane - including Chobe National Park - Okavango and Ngami), North East District, Central District (sub-districts of Bobirwa, Boteti and Tutume).
Note: The cities of Gabarone and Francistown are risk free.
High risk months for Malaria are: November to June
Malaria transmission vector(s): A.gambiae
Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: 100%
Of the five species of human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous. The remaining percentage represents malaria infections that may be caused by one or more of the following parasites: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi.
Areas with drug resistant Malaria: P. falciparum malaria is resistant to chloroquine. Resistance is present in all malarious areas of Botswana.
Suppressive Medication Guide
All malaria infections are serious illnesses and must be treated as a medical emergency. In offering guidance on the choice of antimalarial drugs, the main concern is to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the most dangerous and often fatal form of the illness.
Regardless of the medication which has been taken, it is of utmost importance for travellers and their physician to consider fever and flu-like symptoms appearing 7 days up to several months after leaving a malarious area as a malaria breakthrough. Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment.
In addition to the suggested antimalarial medication, use a mosquito bed net and effective repellents to avoid the bite of the nocturnal Anopheles mosquito.
The medications listed below are effective against malaria in this country. Discuss with your healthcare provider which antimalarial regimen is best suited to your needs. Take ONE of the following:
Brand names: Malarone, Malanil and others; generics available.
|TAKE 1 TABLET DAILY (ATOVAQUONE 250 mg + PROGUANIL 100 mg).
START 1-2 DAYS BEFORE ENTERING THE MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE DAILY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 7 DAYS AFTER LEAVING.
|Note: Take at the same time every day with food or milk.|
Brand names: Vibramycin and others; generics available.
|TAKE 1 TABLET DAILY OF 100 mg.
START 1 DAY BEFORE ENTERING MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE DAILY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 4 WEEKS AFTER LEAVING.
Note: When taking this drug, avoid exposure to direct sunlight and use sunscreen with protection against long range ultraviolet radiation (UVA) to minimize risk of photosensitive reaction. Take with large amounts of water to prevent esophageal and stomach irritation.
Brand names: Lariam, Mephaquin, Mefliam and others; generics available.
|TAKE 1 TABLET OF 250 mg (228 mg base) ONCE A WEEK.
START 1-2 WEEKS BEFORE ENTERING THE MALARIOUS AREA, CONTINUE WEEKLY DURING YOUR STAY AND CONTINUE FOR 4 WEEKS AFTER LEAVING.
|Note: Side effects include nausea and headache, including neurological side effects such as dizziness, ringing of the ears, and loss of balance. Psychiatric side effects include anxiety, depression, mistrustfulness, and hallucinations. Neurological side effects can occur any time during use and can last for long periods of time or become permanent even after the drug is stopped. Seek medical advice if any neurological or psychiatric side effects occur.|
The recommendations for malaria prophylaxis outlined here are intended as guidelines only and may differ according to where you live, your health status, age, destination, trip itinerary, type of travel, and length of stay. Seek further advice from your physician or travel health clinic for the malaria prophylactic regimen most appropriate to your needs.